Antibacterial treatment strategies using functional nanomaterials, such as photodynamic therapy, are urgently required to combat persistent Staphylococcus aureus small colony variant (SCV) bacteria. Using a stepwise approach involving thermolysis to form β-NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and surface ligand exchange with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), followed by zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) coating and conversion to zinc oxide (ZnO), β-NaYF4:Yb/Tm@ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized. The direct synthesis of β-NaYF4:Yb/Tm@ZIF-8 UCNPs proved problematic due to the hydrophobic nature of the as-synthesized material, which was shown by zeta potential measurements using dynamic light scattering (DLS). To facilitate deposition of a ZnO coating, the zeta potentials of (i) as-synthesized UCNPs, (ii) calcined UCNPs, (iii) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and (iv) CTAB-coated UCNPs were measured, which revealed the CTAB-coated UCNPs to be the most hydrophilic and the better-dispersed form in water. β-NaYF4:Yb/Tm@ZIF-8 composites formed using the CTAB-coated UCNPs were then converted into β-NaYF4:Yb/Tm@ZnO nanoparticles by calcination under carefully controlled conditions. Photoluminescence analysis confirmed the upconversion process for the UCNP core, which allows the β-NaYF4:Yb/Tm@ZnO nanoparticles to photogenerate reactive oxygen species (ROS) when activated by near-infrared (NIR) radiation. The NIR-activated UCNPs@ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated potent efficacy against both Staphylococcus aureus (WCH-SK2) and its associated SCV form (0.67 and 0.76 log colony forming unit (CFU) reduction, respectively), which was attributed to ROS generated from the NIR activated β-NaYF4:Yb/Tm@ZnO nanoparticles.
https://www.opotek.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/opotek-logo-v4-4-325x100-300x93.png 0 0 Katy https://www.opotek.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/opotek-logo-v4-4-325x100-300x93.png Katy2021-11-18 23:00:192021-11-18 23:00:19Facile Multistep Synthesis of ZnO-Coated β-NaYF4:Yb/Tm Upconversion Nanoparticles as an Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants