Sulfur determination in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with resonance Raman scattering
Sulfur is an essential element in industry, but it is difficult to be detected by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In this work, the disulfide radical Raman scattering was observed in sulfur plasma by combining LIBS with resonance Raman scattering (LIBS-RRS). Sulfur has been ablated by a focused laser beam to generate plasma, in which some sulfur atoms were combined to form disulfide radicals. The disulfide radical resonance Raman was excited by a 306.4 nm wavelength laser and observed at 710 and 1420 cm−1 Raman shift. Using different contents of sulfur mixed with alumina (Al2O3) powder, both LIBS and LIBS-RRS calibrations were obtained at the same ablation laser energy. The calibration curve of sulfur atomic emission S I 921.28 nm was set up, and the linear coefficient (R2) was 0.285 and the detection limit (LoD) was 13.092 wt %. While the R2 was 0.966 and LoD was 0.118 wt % for S2 710 cm−1 in LIBS-RRS. The results indicate that disulfide radical Raman scattering by LIBS-RRS is promising for the determination of sulfur content and the diagnosis of molecular evolution in plasma.