First Year On-Orbit Calibration of the Chinese Environmental Trace Gas Monitoringendgraf Instrument Onboard GaoFen-5
Environmental trace gas monitoring instrument (EMI) onboard GaoFen-5 was launched in May 2018 and has successfully operated on-orbit for more than a year. EMI contains four grating spectrometers, covering wavelengths in the range 240-710 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.3-0.5 nm, and enables one-day global coverage. For EMI on-orbit calibration, two onboard solar diffusers (SD), one surface reflectance aluminum diffuser, and one quartz volume diffuser (QVD) are used to measure solar spectra. The solar spectra are used to perform accurate spectral and radiometric calibrations. EMI on-orbit spectral calibration contains wavelength calibration and instrument spectral response function (ISRF), both of which are the key quantities in trace gas retrievals based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis. The wavelength calibration is performed using the Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum, and the ISRF parameters are obtained by fitting high-resolution and EMI-measured solar spectra. Based on the known solar irradiation and characteristic of SD, SD radiance can be calculated and is used for EMI on-orbit radiometric calibration. The radiometric calibration also determines the absolute Earth reflectance spectra that are used as inputs for atmospheric retrieval algorithms. For EMI on-orbit radiometric monitoring, aluminum diffuser is used as reference SD to monitor QVD degradation. An internal white light source is used to detect pixel performance and monitor radiometric throughput.